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What is Artificial Intelligence?

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Introduction:

  • Artificial intelligence(AI) is technology and a branch of computer science that studies and develops intelligent machines and software.
  • Here intelligent system means a system that perceives its environment and learn through experience like human beings.
  • In 1955, John McCarthy coined the term “Artificial Intelligence”.

 

Intelligence:

  • Intelligence is the ability to learn about, to learn from, to understand about, and interact with one’s environment.
  • Intelligence is the faculty for understanding.

“Intelligence is not to make no mistakes but quickly to understand how to make them good” -(German Poet )

 

Core Parts of AI:

  • Knowledge
  • Reasoning
  • Problem solving capability
  • Perception
  • Learning
  • Planning
  • The ability to manipulate and move objects

How does AI Works:

Artificial intelligence works with the help of :

  • Artificial Neurons   (Artificial Neural Network)
  • Scientific theorems (If-Then Statements, Logics)

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What is Neural Networking:

Artificial neural networks are  composed of interconnecting  artificial neurons (programming constructs that mimic the properties of biological neurons).

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Structure of Biological Neuron:


An Artificial Neuron:

Turing Test:

  • The Turing testis a test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of an actual human.
  • The test was introduced by Alan Turingin his 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,”

Test Setup-

Person A (actually a computer) and Person B both say that they are human. Person C tries to find out whether Person A or Person B is the computer or the human.

Examples of Artificial Machines:

  • Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM. On May 11, 1997, the machine, played chess with world champion Garry Kasparov.
  • MYCIN: is an expert system for treatment of blood infection.

Advantages:

  • It can help improve our way of life.
  • Use of robots for heavy construction, military benefits or even for personal assistance at private home.
  • There will be less injuries and stress to human beings.
  • Many of our health problems now have possible solutions with the use of Artificial Intelligence.
  • Scientists have been using AI to test theories and notions about how our brain works.

Disadvantages:

  • If robots start replacing human resources in every field, we will have to deal with serious issues like unemployment.
  • One of the major disadvantages of intelligent machines is that they cannot be ‘human’. We might be able to make them think. But will we be able to make them feel?
  • Apart from these concerns, there are chances that intelligent machines overpower human beings.

Awadhesh Kumar

Jain Software Developers

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